THUNDER ENERGIES CORPORATION

DETECTING SMUGGLED FISSIONABLE MATERIAL VIA THUNDER ENERGIES THERMAL-NEUTRON=SOURCETM.

1. Failed detections to date of fissionable material A top priority for the security of the United States of America, as well as of other countries, is to prevent terrorists from smuggling nuclear material suitable for the detonation of atomic bombs, such as certain isotopes of uranium or plutonium. here denoted fissionable material from their capability to split into smaller nuclei when hit by neutrons.

The U. S. Domestic Nuclear Detection Office (DNDO, an agency within the Department of Homeland Security (DHS), has the mission, in collaboration with other domestic and international agencies, of promoting the development of technologies suitable of prevent a terrorist nuclear attack on American soil.

As part of its mission, DNDO have provided financial support for R&D on nuclear detection devices. However, DNDO recently came under heavy criticism for its failed Advanced Spectroscopic Portal Monitor (ASP) and Cargo Advanced Automated Radiography System (CAARS) programs.

div id="content"> The U.S. Senate Committee on Homeland Security and Governmental Affairs accused DNDO of wasting five years and hundreds of millions of dollars without achieving the intended duty. Since its establishment in 2005, there have been 25 GAO reports plus several independent investigations (American Physical Society, National Academy of Sciences) of DNDO, all of which have been highly critical. There is no reason to believe that our nation is any better protected by the millions spent by DNDO than when it started.

For details and references, please see the ppt http://thunder-energies.com/docs/Detection-fissionable-material.pdf

2. The only possible effective detection of fissionable material The preceding attempts at detecting smuggled fissionable material, that had been funded by the DNDO, were used on the use of X-rays of various types. As shown in Figure 1, containers were passed through intense X-rays sources and the outcome was analyzed by various detectors.

The failure of these attempts was known by experts because fissionable materials are metallic and, as such, they appear as ordinary metallic components when scanned via X-rays, resulting in the inability to distinguish which metallic component is fissionable and which is not.

The only known means for the effective detection of smuggled fissionable materials is via the use of low energy neutrons, also known as thermal neutrons, because, according to the basic principles of nuclear bombs, when hit by neutrons, the nuclei of fissionable material disintegrate by emitting more neutrons than those absorbed.

Therefore, the scanning of containers via a beam of thermal neutrons providesthe only known effective means to detect smuggled fissionable material, of coursed, following sufficient investments and appropriate R&D because, in the event a container contains smuggled fissionable materials, the number of neutrons emitted per seconds (Counts per seconds - CPS) by the container following its exposure to thermal neutrons is "bigger" than the original CPS, thus establishing the presence of fissionable material in the interior of the container. The same principle also holds for the smuggling of fissionable material in suitcases or other means.

3. The synthesis of the neutron from the hydrogen in the core of stars Neutrons are synthesized in nature from the hydrogen in the core of stars. As we all known, stars initiate their life as an aggregate of hydrogen gas whose density, pressure and temperature increase with the accretion of additional h\hydrogen from interstellar spaces to such values that the hydrogen atom is "compressed" into the neutron according to the original 1909 conception by H. Rutherford in [1].

Following the experimental confirmation of the existence of the neutron, its synthesis from the hydrogen atom, that is, from the positively charged proton p+ and the negatively charged electron e-- according to quantum mechanics was finalized by Enrico fermi in 1940 via the particle reaction p+ + e-- → n + ν. Fermi conjectured the emission of the hypothetical neutrino ν as a massless and neutral particle with spin 1/2 in order to verify the principle of conservation of the angular momentum because, according to quantum mechanics, two particles with spin 1/2, such as the proton p+ and the electron e-- cannon be synthesized into a particle, such as the neutron n, that also has spin 1/2

Figure 1. A failed attempt to detect fissionable material via X=rays
The majestic creation of light by stars can only occur following the synthesis of neutrons since light is created by the fusion of the helium or heavier elements all of which require neutrons for their structure.

Figure 1. A view of the Sun following the neutron synthesis from the hydrogen
4. Incompatibility of the synthesis of the neutron with 20th century theories Dr. Ruggero M. santilli, Chief Scientist of Thunder Energies Corporation (TEC), has dedicated his lifetime of research to the achievement of the "laboratory" synthesis of the neutron from the hydrogen. To understand the difficulties of the research, one should know that the synthesis of the neutron violates quantum mechanics as well as special relativity because the rest energy of the neutron is "bigger" (by about one million Electron Volts - 1 MeV) than the sum of the rest energies of the proton and the electron.

Quantum mechanics is solely valid for nuclear fusions in which the mass of the synthesized nucleus is "smaller" than the sum of the mass of the original constituents, in which case, the missing mass, called "mass defect," is converted into energy according to the principles of nuclear bombs.

When there is a "mass excess" of about 1 MeV, as it is the case for the synthesis of the neutron, the basic equations of quantum mechanics (the Schroedinger and Heisenberg equations), no longer admit physically meaningful solutions.

Similarly, special relativity was conceived for and resulted to be extremely accurate for the representation of electron orbiting around the proton in the structure of the hydrogen atom. More generally, special relativity resulted to be very accurate for the representation of point-like particles moving in vacuum, as it is the case for proton moving in a particle acceleration.,

By remembering that the interior of the proton consists of one of the densest media measured by mankind to date. it is then evident that special relativity is no longer valid for the description of the electron when it is "compressed" inside the proton as a necessary condition to synthesize the neutron.

More generally, quantum mechanics and special relativity are exactly valid for point-like particles and electromagnetic waves propagating in empty space under sole action-at-a-distance interactions. Said disciplines cannot be even correctly defined, let alone tested, for extended particles and electromagnetic waves propagating within a physical medium (see the comprehensive studies [2]).

5. Construction of isomathematics In September 1977, Santilli became a member of Harvard University under DOE contracts ER-78-S-02-47420.A000, AS02-78ER04742, DE-AC02-80ER1065, DE-AC02-80ER-1065.A001, and DE-AC02-80ER.1065. The main objectives of these DOE grant was the initiation of stjudies that wouldlater on lead to new clean energies.

Since nuclear fusions occur in the Sun only after the synthesis of the neutrons, rather than continuing failed attempts at clean nuclear energies via conventionalk liens of research, Santilli decided to study first the most fundamental synthesis, that of the nejutyron,. and then pass to the study of new clean nuclear energies.

In so doing. Santilli discovered that the inapplicability of quantum mechanoics and special relativity for the neutyron synthesis was due, in reality, tlo basic insufficiencies of the "mathematucs" used for their elaboration. in fact, 20th century mathematcs is known to be solely able to describe point particle in vacuum (due to itys local-do9fferentioal structure). As such, 20thj century mathematucs is perfect;ly suited to represent the structurev of the Hydrogen atom due to the large mutual distances of its constituents. However, when passing to the synthesis of the neiutroin, the insufficiencies of 20th centiry mathematucs became evdient due to the impossibility of continuiong the reporesentation of the proton as a dimemnsionless point.

In veiew of these mathematical insufficiencies, Santilli was passed by Harvard University from the Lyman Laboiratory of Physics to Harvasrd's Depaertment of Mathematiucs. By the end of 1978, santilli has already identified a generalization of 20th centiury mathgematucs suitable for the description of the shape of extended and, therefore, deformanble particles such as the proton as well as their hyperdense interior.

The emerging new mathematu s, today known as "Santilli IsoMathematucs," is essentiasllyh based on the generalization of all possible products AB of quantum mechanbics and spoecial trelativity into the generalized form A×B = ATB, where T is T is a positive-definite matric or operator. The generalization of the baisc product then implied tghe generalization of quantum mechaniucs into a covering mechanics proposed in Refs. [2n, page zzz, under the name of "hadronic mechanics."

Subsewquently, to ahcieve mathematiucal and pbhysical consistency, Santilli was forced to generalize conventiomnal numbers into a form today known as "Santilli isoNumbers" [3], which are ordinayr numbers n, m, etc. equipped with the isoproduct n×m - nTm and the new unit I* = 1/T, I*×n = n×I* - n.

the generalziation of the basic product and of the basic unit then required the generalziation of the entirety of 20ytjh cventury mathematiucs with no exclusion whatsoiewver (to avoid insidious inconsistencies), incljuding the isotopic generalziation of vector and metriuc spoaces, functional analysis, differential geometry, algebras and groiups, geometries, etc. This systematiuc generalzijation of 20th century mathematucs was presenetd by Santilli for the first time ion the mathematica,k memoir []4] ofc 19906.

Santilli isomathematics achieved, for the first time in scientific history, the description of extended, deformabnle and hyperdense particles such as the proton via the realizawtion of the isounit of the type

I* = 1/T > 0 and generalized product n*m = nTm. The realization of Santilli isounit I* = Diag. (n12, n22, n32, n42)

where the space components n12, n22, n32 epresent the proton as an extended, thus deformable, ellipsoid,, and with the forth component n42 represent the proton density.

zzz. Construction of IsoMechanics Following, and only following the needed generalzed mathematcs, Santilli passed to the construction of the corresponding generalization of quantum mechanics into a form suitable for the rerpesentation of the synthesis of the neutron from the Hydrogen artom, that is, the fusion of one extended proton and one extended electron resulting in the mass excess oif about 1 MeV.

The new mechanics was proposed by Santilli in monographs [2] under the name of :hadroniuc mechanics" (see Ref. [zzz] opage ...), whose simplest branch is today known under the name of "IsoMechanics" where the preficx "iso" intendes the preservation of the abstract axioms of quantum mechanics, only subjected to a broader realization essentially based on "all" products being of the isotopu type A×B = ATB.

On technicalk grounds, the main structuyrak difference between quantum mechanics and Santilli IsoMechanics is that the time evoljution of the former consdtitute a "unitaryt transformation.". BGy constract the time evolution of the latetr constitute s a "non0unitary transformation." Said non-unitary character resulted to be necessary for the representation of the neutroin synthesis with a "mass excess" of about 1 MeV.

zzz. The first representation of the synthesis of the neutron sratoryh work, Santilli was finally in a position to address and achieve the first known numericallhy exact and time invariant rfepresentation of "all" characteristiucs of the neutron in its synthesis from the hhydrogen at both the non-relativisgtic [zzz as well as relativistic levels [zzzz]

The first main problem was the achievement of a representation of the "mass excess," namely, the additional mass which si needed besides those of the proton and the electron to achieve the mass of the neutron. This mass excess was technically achieved thanks to the non0unigtary character oif Santilli isomechanics, with particular reference to the Schroedinger-Santilli isoequation for the non-relativistic level and the Dirac- Santilli isoequation for the relativistic lkevel.

the next protmn was the representation of the spin 1/2 of the neutron from two particles,, the proton and teh electron, each having spinb 1/2.

CURRENT TEXT

TEC Division of Nuclear Instruments (tec-dne)

As it is well known, stars initiate their life as an aggregate of Hydrogen atoms. The first and most fundamental synthesis in the core of a star is that of neutrons as "compressed" Hydrogen atoms according to Rutherford’s conception in 1920 subsequently verified. The majestic production of light by a star can only initiate following the synthesis of neutrons, since they are needed for the syntheses of all natural elements.

A number of scientific, industrial and military applications require the use of a flux of neutrons that, nowadays, are solely available, either in minute amounts from rare radioactive elements or from dangerous conditions in nuclear power reactors.

Following also fifty years of mathematical, theoretical and experimental research, Dr. Santilli has discovered industrial means for the synthesis on Earth of neutrons from a Hydrogen gas, thus allowing for the first time in history the capability to produce the desired flux of neutrons with the desired energy anywhere and anytime desired via a remotely operated touch screen control.

TEC-DNE is currently finalizing the specifications of Santilli Thermal Neutron SourcesTM (TNS) and

\\ then organizing their production, promotion, sale and service in various models depending on the needed flux and energy of the neutrons (see Figure 2).

Figure 2: Views of the production prototype of TEC Thermal Neutron Source showing the complete unit with a Hydrogen pressure bottle (left); the reactor with various neutron detectors (top right) and the remote touch screen control (bottom right) of Santilli Thermal Neutron Source

TEC-DNE will also conduct a campaign to promote the awareness of fellow Americans on the need to develop new technologies suitable to test commercial containers coming from abroad to rapidly ascertain whether they contain fissionable material usable for atomic bombs. For more detailed information, including scientific publications, please view the the scientific paper published in a refereed journal Confirmation of the laboratory synthesis of neutrons from a hydrogen gas A 12 minute long DVD on the neutron synthesis is available from the link http://www.world-lecture-series.org/newtron-synthesis-08-14 TEC-DNE-mainpage.php %%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%% \begin{figure}[htbp] % figure placement: here, top, bottom, or page \centering \includegraphics[width=2.50in]{fig16.pdf} \centering \caption{{\it A reproduction of data from Ref. [45] showing the clear increase of the efficiency of a fuel cell when using Santilli MagneHydrogen with minimal increase of specific weight and conventional Oxygen. }} \end{figure} REFERENCES [1] H. Rutherford, Proc. Roy. Soc. A, 97, 374 (1920) [2] Springer [3] AGG 1993 [4] Rendicon [5] EHMi

Figure 1. The synthesis of the neutron from the hydrogen according to Rutherford